Macular hole

What is it?

A macular hole, as the name suggests, is a hole in the macula, which is essentially the center of the retina. A hole usually results due to constant pulling or traction on the retina by the shrinkage of the jelly-like substance known as the vitreous humor (described in retina and vitreous sub-section) that is present in front of the retina.


The causative factors for this kind of shrinkage of the vitreous humor range from inflammatory cystoid macular edema, vascular disorders of the retina, retinal detachment to even changes on account of advancing age.

Signs and syntoms?

Signs and symptoms include reduced sight and distorted or defective vision in the center of the eye.


The treatment for this condition is surgical and involves a vitrectomy (removal of the vitreous humor from the eye), peeling of the epiretinal membrane (the membrane over the retina that, in this condition, along with the vitreous humor pulls on the retina itself) and the injection of a gas bubble to seal the hole and exert pressure on the retina, thereby aiding in recovery.

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